Friday, 27 July 2012

Quartz Crystals ... Healing Pt 3

About the Quartz Family

    When most people hear about crystal quartz/quartz crystal, a picture of a clear or white crystal normally comes to mind. But there are others that belong to this family as well, such as; purple amethyst, pink rose quartz, smoky quartz, aventurine, yellow citrine and several other stones that belong to the quartz family as well. In this article, Here is some of the brief history and uses for some of these quartz crystals.

Clear Quartz Crystal
      Clear Crystal Quartz is a very well known item that is used in every day life. Some of the unique attributes that make it useful in our day-to-day lives are its piezoelectric and pyroelectric abilities. Piezoelectricity is the ability of a crystal to generate a voltage in response to applied mechanical stress. Pyroelectricity is the ability of certain materials to generate an electrical potential when they are heated or cooled. With these qualities, quartz crystal has been used in the making of deep-sea diving instruments, clocks, watches, and the control of radio frequencies.

     The Greeks first gave it the name kystallos or crystallos, and acenteta ("without a core") to this clear rock crystal. The word quartz may have derived from the Slavic word kwardy, which means "hard." The first recording of the Latin quarzum comes from the sixteenth century, by the German writer Agricola; he said the Bohemian miners of Czechoslovakia used this term in reference to quartz. The English spelling was gradually changed from chrystal to crystal between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries.

     Archaeologists have discovered Egyptian and Babylonian crystal scarabs, vases, and cylinders, dating back to 1500 B.C.E. Un-worked and un-engraved rock crystals was imported from Alabandina in Asia Minor by the Romans. Roman ladies would carry the crystal spears to cool their hands during the hot weather and the armies also used the crystal spears and lenses as a focus for the sun's rays to cauterize wounds that occurred in battle.

     Crystal Quartz is also known as the Witch's Mirror and Star Stone, which was used in many ancient rituals to start the sacred fires. The Greek Eleusinian Mysteries, held in the honor of the goddess Demeter, started fire by focusing the Sun's rays through the crystal. Explorers have found large quantities of crafted objects made from quartz in the French and Austrian Alps around the 1800's. The Irish and Celts called these rock crystals by the name of God Stones. These stones were buried with the dead, a similar tradition that is also used by the Native Americans. Other finds have included balls of crystals fashioned with metal for use as an amulet, commonly used to ward off ill wishing.

     Quartz is has always been greatly valued in Scotland, where several of the clans have hereditary "victory stones." In some parts of both Scotland and Ireland, the people still pour water over certain ancient crystals then they will give this water to their cattle as a protection against enchantments, illness, and attack by fairies.
     Quartz has a long list of uses associated with it, which can also vary on the termination (this is when the crystal is pointed on either one end or both) of the crystal, the size, shape, and/or colors. This crystal is an all-purpose healer that can be extremely powerful if not used with knowledge and care. This crystal can also be used as an emotional balancer by enhancing the pineal* and pituitary* glands and stimulates the thinking process. It can also be used to repel and destroys negative energies and vibrations, not only in the body's shield, but also in the surrounding environment. Not only can it repel and destroy negative energy but is can also be used to store, transmit and amplify energies. Even individual crystals can also be programmed to hold certain energies.

     This crystal is excellent for meditation as it enhances communication with the higher self, spirit guides, and inter-dimensional entities.If you put this crystal in a headband, it can help you with telepathy or aid you in gaining clarity of visualization. While meditating on a question that concerns you; it will reveal images, symbols, or direct knowledge to help answer your question.

     This crystal can also useful for protection, by burying a chunk of quartz at each of the four corners of the property, house or apartment. This method can also be used in your magic circles for protection as well.

Rose Quartz
      This useful crystal was used by the Assyrians as early as 800 - 600 B.C.E. Later, it became popular among the Romans. Rose Quartz is associated with Taurus and Libra. To dream of this color of quartz means a true love or friendship is coming.
     Rose Quartz is a type of quartz that is light to strong pink, opaque to translucent, and somewhat brittle. It is sometimes called the "love stone"; it eases emotional and sexual imbalances, while helping to clear out stored anger, resentment, guilt fear, and jealousy. It can aid in the development of compassion and love and is very useful in learning how to give and receive love. This crystal is associated with the heart or fourth chakra for comfort and healing. It will help one to forgive and
love oneself. With all that it does for love, one could see why it is also known as the "love stone" or the "stone of unconditional love" and why it is so widely preferred then the other crystals. This crystal can also be used to reveal and bring to the surface buried negative childhood experiences, particularly those of great emotional stress. Such childhood experiences can keep you from moving forward in your life, by facing them will help make you a stronger person and can also help with relationship issues.

Smoky Quartz

     Smoky Quartz is actually clear quartz that has been naturally irradiated by the earth, which gives it its dark smoky color. Although smoky quartz mostly comes from Brazil, very dark smoky quartz comes from Scotland and Colorado.
     The Sumerians and Egyptians were using this stone before 3100 B.C.E. Later it became popular by the Romans who used it in beaded jewelry which was uncovered in Rome. This color of quartz is also known in Scotland as cairngorm, name after the Cairngorm Mountains from where this crystal can be found. Cairngorm was set in the hilts of the Scottish Dirks and in brooches.
     This crystal is very useful to help over come depression and severs mood swings and is mildly sedative and relaxing. It can also help balance sexual energy and may aid in fertility. This crystal is excellent for meditation as it will ground and center you, and can also aid in removing emotional blockages and the negativity that they attract. It will also help strengthen your dream awareness and
channeling, a good stone for mystics and seers. Smoky Quartz will absorb negative energy from the aura and block out psychic attack. It is an ideal stone to help you with linking with the Earth, its energies and Nature spirits.

Purple Amethyst

    The word Amethyst comes from the Greek word amethystos, meaning "non-intoxicating." Ancient Greeks and Roman wise men claimed that it had the ability to neutralize  alcohol in  wine just by dropping it in thing. This belief in the power of the amethyst to prevent inebriation was still held in 1750, as reported by Camillus Leonardus, an Italian writer and physician who also listed other
powers of this crystal such as; repressing evil thoughts; grants good understanding; makes a barren wife fruitful; gives victory to the military; and makes wild beasts and birds easy to capture.
    This crystal has a long history with religious practices. In the Egyptian book of the dead, instructions are given for placing heart shaped amethysts on the body of the deceased. This use of the heart -shaped crystal survives today in the practice of the groom giving a hear-shaped amethyst that is set in silver or gold to his bride. This is to confer great happiness and tranquility to the newly
married couple for the rest of their lives. During the Middle Ages in Europe, amethyst was also known as the "bishop's stone," it was worn by cardinals and bishops. The Crusaders continued the Pagan use of amethyst by attaching it to their rosaries. This crystal was even popular during the 15th century because it was thought to control and repel evil spirits. Soldiers wore it as an amulet against injury and death.
     Amethyst is a powerful mental healer that has the ability to sooth the nervous system, aids in neural transmission, focuses realistic goals, and boosts memory. Amethyst is a major player for healers. Even though amethyst is mostly associated with the Brow/6th chakra, it also has the abilities to calm mental disorders, purify the blood, boost memory, find realistic goals, strengthens
the immune system, help with insomnia, and balances and heals all chakras. Amethyst will help reduce the mental burdens and allow you to focus on realistic goals.
     Single amethyst crystals are very beneficial, but clusters are even more powerful and purifying. Because of this purifying power amethyst clusters are also used to help cleanse other crystals and stones simply by placing them on the cluster and leaving them for at least 24 hours. If this is your choice of cleansing for other crystals, you might want to consider soaking the amethyst crystals in a
saline solution for 24 hours, rinse and dry under the moon.

Green Aventurine

Red Aventurine


     The name aventurine derives from the Italian "a ventura," meaning "by chance." This is an allusion to the chance discovery of aventurine glass or goldstone at some point in the 18th century. Although it was known first, goldstone is now a common imitation of aventurine and sunstone. Goldstone is distinguished visually from the latter two minerals by its coarse platelets of copper, dispersed within the glass in an unnaturally uniform manner. It is usually a golden brown, but may also be found in blue or green.
     Aventurine has been known to help relieve anxiety and fear. It has a strong healing energy that affects the pituitary gland*. It sooths the eye and relieves migraines. Some other uses for this crystal are to help build a positive attitude, good health and independence. This crystal can enhance creative visualization, which is excellent for writers, artists, musicians, or anyone in the creative fields.
     Green Aventurine can help enhance your self-esteem; keeps the sixth and seventh chakras open; creates harmony and balance and will help you in channeling. This crystal makes a powerful good luck piece that will draw opportunities your way, even unexpected adventures and good luck in love. Red Aventurine will help stimulate creativity and communications, keeps the second through the
fifth chakra open and balances all the bodies.
     Although green aventurine will attract prosperity and love, it also draws unexpected adventures or incidents. If you are the timid or shy type of person, you might find using this crystal unsettling, but if you stick through it, it can help you over come your shyness.

Yellow Citrine
     This crystal is not very popular compared to the other crystals among the ancient cultures, but it was used during the Hellenistic Age (323-280 B.C.E) in Greece. Its popularity was mostly in jewelry in the first and second centuries in both Rome and Greece. The name probably came from the French word citron ("lemon"), referring to its yellow color.
    Yellow Citrine can help reduce flare-ups from ulcers and helps with digestion. This crystal is also good for tissue regeneration and detoxifying all the bodies. It will also work on the circulation, kidneys, heart, gallbladder, liver, and intestines. This crystal can also help you eliminate self-destructive tendencies and raise the self-esteem. This stone is related to the navel, or third chakra, which can be used to strengthen your self-esteem and protect your aura. It will transform emotional fears, even inherited ones, by giving clarity of thought.
     The vibrations of this crystal will build up physical, mental, emotional and spiritual stamina, thus making it possible to deal with karmic events in a positive manor. This crystal will also help open channels to the intuitive levels of the mind. This crystal has also been associated with prosperity on all levels especially for those that are looking for business success. It will increase a person's motivation and helps in using creative energy. This is an excellent crystal for those in education and business.

     So you never know, that pretty crystal that you once bought because you like the color, the form, etc. might have helped you out in more ways then you realize. If you own any crystals, stones or gemstones that are used as jewelry or as decorations, Look into the history and uses for that crystal and see if things have been different since you acquired that item, or how they might be able
to help you out in the future.


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Thursday, 26 July 2012

Crystal Cleaning & Programing Pt 2

{ I am the Bio-Crystal of Living Energy }
{ The Full Spectrum }
{ The Singularity of Now}

by dh

     As mentioned in “Intro to Crystals”, crystals absorb and emit both positive and negative energy.
Crystals that are new-to-you need to be purified, even crystals that you have had in your possession
will need to be cleansed on a regular basis to ensure optimum energy. In this post we will discuss the
different methods for cleansing your crystals and charging (Programming) them.
     Crystals will absorb energy from it’s surrounding, which mean it will absorb positive and negative
 energy from anything and everything that comes near it or touches it. If you have bought a crystal or
have found one, it will have an energy imprint of everyone and everything that has touched it.
There are a couple of methods that are used to cleanse a crystal of any unwanted energy that it may posses.

Immersed in Salt Water

     This is one of the popular methods for cleansing crystals and other items. Since some of the materials that are used is common in most households  Some Salts that most people will use is Epson Salt or your standard Ionized Salt, which is not quite as affective as using Sea Salt. Mix the Sea Salt and Water together, and let the crystals soak for a few hours or even days if you wish. Then allow them to dry in the sun.

Flowing Water

      Flowing water will rapidly cleanse the energies from the crystals. Hold the crystals under a waterfall, stream or the kitchen faucet. Then allow it to dry naturally under the sun.


     Some incense is used for cleansing in general rituals and spells; you can also use incense to cleanse a crystal. Incense such as sage, frankincense, myrrh, lotus, cedar or sweet grass can be used to help cleanse a crystal. All you have to do is hold the crystal in the smoke. You can also use a feather to gently fan the smoke across the crystal.

Quartz Clusters

      You can also stand the crystal on a large cluster of Quartz or other energizing crystals for approximately 12 or more hours. Stones that have a natural affinity with the moon can be left in the moonlight; same with those that has a natural affinity with the sun.


      Visualization helps with a lot of aspects in our lives, even in cleansing. Just visualize a golden or white light coming down to surrounding the crystal, cleansing and transmuting the energies. Continue doing that until the crystals energy shines out once more.
     How do you  determine which method is correct for your crystal? Well all of them are the correct way, but there are some things that you might want to be aware of when you are about to cleanse your crystal or stones. Certain stones like opals and turquoise will react negatively to sudden temperature changes and could shatter, so any of the methods above that involve water is out of the question. You might want to consider smudging, Crystal Clusters or Visualization.
If the stone is not fragile, then any of the methods listed above will work without harming the crystal or stone.

Charging your Crystal

      Charging crystals attunes the crystal’s energies to your own vibe and desires. Charging (also known as “programming”) your crystals will help ensure that whatever you wish from your crystal will come. Crystals can be programmed for multiple purposes such as; protection, prosperity, inner peace, love, healing yourself or to heal another (be sure to get permission from the other person before attempting to program the crystal for them), or even to improve your home and/or work environment and so fourth. Theoretically, you can do this with any crystal, but there are certain types of crystals that are suppose to work only for certain kinds of tasks other then just for anything. But attempting to charge a *Lapis Lazuli to help heal a migraine when an Amethyst is well known to treat such an ailment.
     To program your crystal, you should decide exactly word for word what purpose you wish this crystal to perform. It is important that programming is well thought out and properly focused. Imprecise wording can confuse the crystals energies, but exact wording helps direct energy precisely. Once you have precisely formulated your intentions, hold the crystal in your hands. While you have the crystal in your hands, close your eyes and sit quietly with your crystal. This will allow you to attune to your crystal’s energy. When you feel totally in harmony with the stone, state your intentions firmly and clearly. You may repeat this more then once to anchor the intention into the crystal. When you feel that the programming is complete, then you can put down the crystal. Then detach
your energies from the crystal by taking your attention away from it.  After you have programmed the crystal, you can wear it as a necklace, carry it around in your pocket or put in underneath your pillow or by your bed at night when you go to sleep. You can also set a side some time every day to sit with your crystal and ask that some of its energies be transferred to you.

     Remember to keep an open mind when learning to use the power of your crystals. A closed mind with preconceived ideas never accomplishes much, nor does it recognize the unexpected wonders that may come in its way. You need to keep an open mind in order to go through the heart of the stone and expand your magical knowledge.

*Lapis Lazuli – A strong deep blue metamorphic rock with tiny crystals of iron pyrite and off-white patches or veins of calcite. Most commonly used to heal the Throat chakra, treating fevers, epilepsy, and skin and spleen problems.

*Amethyst - Shades of intensities of purple, lilac, and mauve. Most commonly used to heal the Brow chakra (third eye), also said to help physical pain, migraines, other headaches, insomnia, surgery, sore eyes, and psychological illnesses.


Wednesday, 25 July 2012

Regeneration... Crystal Potentials PT 1

Intro to Crystals
{ i am the living crystal }
{ matrics of creation }
{ free will potentional }
{ regenerating }
{ transcending am i }

by dh

     Since the earliest times, crystals have been revered as a scared gift from the
Goddesses and Gods. They are sacred magical tools, which have been used for
 psychic powers, healing, spiritual development, protection and divine guidance.
Their use is intimately connected with religion, ritual and magic. Both Pagan’s
and Non-Pagans believe in the power that the crystal possess. In this article we
will look at a small history about crystals, how they are used and why we are drawn
 to them.

      Seeing people wearing rock crystal or amethyst points hung on chains and
earring or set in rings is not uncommon anymore. Usually when some people hear or
think of crystals, they think back to the ancient Egyptians or medieval times when in fact
crystals have been used long before the ancient Egyptians back in 1352 B.C.E. Archaeologists
 have discovered that people back in the Upper Paleolithic Period (25,000 – 12,000 B.C.E)
were doing this as well. Between the 7,000 and 2,000 B.C.E, cultures in
Mesopotamia, ancient Indus civilization, Afghanistan, and the Phoenicians used crystals
for jewelry, tools, healing, and protection. And we have continued to use them for
jewelry, ritual tools, healing, and protection all the way to our present time.
 Crystal’s have been a valuable resource that has helped aid us in our search for
betterment of our lives on all levels.

      Energy is all around us, and using crystals is a one of the ways to tap into that energy.
Crystals transmute and transform, attract and repel energies. As described in the history
above, they use-to-use crystals for protection, healing, attract abundance, and create love.
Which is how it is still used today by some practitioners, but it has evolved to more then just that. Now and days there is some kind of gadget that you use in day-to-day life that is being aided by a crystal. If you don’t believe me, look around. Do you see a Crystal Quartz watch, Computer,
a FM/AM Radio or some type of radio-controlled device? Modern Science has recognized the crystals ability to hold energy, transmit energy and how certain energies will allow a crystal
to send and receive signals. This is just a small list of some of the modern way on how we are currently using crystals.

      Crystals will either attract or repel, if a crystal is meant for you, it will find it’s
way to you. It will come to into your possession as a gift from someone, or it will
catch your eye while you are browsing through a crystal store, or while on a walk. It
will attract you to it where you just get the feeling that you have to have it. Sometimes
you can idly dip your hand into a tub of
stones and one will stick to your fingers. This is one crystal that is meant for you whether
you know it or not, but it’s letting you know it. Even if you see a crystal and a person comes to mind, you might feel that it is a beautiful gift or that the person might benefit with this crystal in their life. So follow that instinct and get it for them.
     To sum it all up, we are not only attracted to them, but they are also attracted to us as
well and will come to our aid in a time of need. They have aided mankind for thousands of years and to aid us in present times.


Thursday, 19 July 2012

A MAN OF HIS TIME .. Sir William Herschel

Sir William Herschel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Sir Frederick William Herschel, KH, FRS, German: Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel (15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, technical expert, and composer. Born in Hanover, Germany, Herschel followed his father into the Military Band of Hanover, before emigrating to Britain at age 19. He became famous for his discovery of the planet
Uranus, along with two of its major moons (Titania and Oberon), and also discovered two moons of Saturn. In addition, he was the first person to discover the existence of infrared radiation. He is known, as well, for the twenty-four symphonies that he composed.


Sir William Herschel lived most of his life in Slough, a town then in Buckinghamshire, England. He died in the town and was buried under the tower of St Laurence's Church, Upton, Slough. Herschel is very much respected in the town as evidenced by a number of memorials to him and his discoveries.

In 2011 a new Bus Station, whose design was inspired by the infrared experiment of Sir William Herschel was built in the centre of Slough. The Shopping centre in the town, 'The Observatory', also comes in memory of him.

Early life and musical activities

Herschel was born in Hanover, Electorate of Hanover one of ten children of Isaak and Anna Ilse, née Moritzen, Herschel. His father was of Jewish descent and an oboist in the Hannover Military Band. In 1755 the Hannoverian Guards regiment, in whose band Wilhelm and his brother Jakob were engaged as oboists, was ordered to England. At the time the crowns of Great Britain and Hannover were united under George II. As the threat of war with France loomed, the Hannoverian Guard was ecalled
from England to defend Hannover. After the Hannoverian guard was defeated at the Battle of Hastenbeck, Herschel's father Isaak sent his two sons to seek refuge in England in late 1757. Although his older brother Jakob had received his dismissal from the Hannoverian Guard, Wilhelm was accused of desertion, (for which he was pardoned by George III in 1782). Wilhelm,
nineteen years old at this time, was a quick student of the English language. In England he went by the English rendition of his name, Frederick William Herschel.

He played the cello and harpsichord in addition to the oboe and later the organ. He composed numerous musical works, including 24 symphonies and many concertos, as well as some church music. Six of his symphonies are available in excellent recordings made in 2003 by the London Mozart Players, conducted by Matthias Bamert (Chandos 10048).

Herschel moved to Sunderland in 1761 when Charles Avison immediately engaged him as first violin and soloist for his Newcastle orchestra, where he played for one season. In ‘Sunderland in the County of Durham 20 April 1761’ he wrote his symphony no. 8 in C minor. He was head of the Durham Militia band 1760–61 and visited the home of Sir Ralph Milbanke at Halnaby Hall in 1760, where he wrote two symphonies, as well as giving performances himself.

After Newcastle he moved to Leeds and Halifax where he was the first organist at St John the Baptist church. He became organist of the Octagon Chapel, Bath, a fashionable chapel in a well-known spa, in which town he was also Director of Public Concerts. He was appointed as the organist in 1766 and gave his introductory concert on 1 January 1767. As the organ was still incomplete he showed off his versatility by performing his own compositions including a violin concerto, an oboe concerto and a
harpsichord sonata. The organ was completed in October 1767. His sister Caroline came to England in 1772 and lived with him there in New King Street. His brothers Dietrich, Alexander and Jakob (1734–1792) also appeared as musicians of Bath. In 1780, Herschel was appointed director of the Bath orchestra, with his sister often appearing as soprano soloist.

William Herschel and sister Caroline


Herschel's music led him to an interest in mathematics and lenses. His interest in astronomy grew stronger after he made the acquaintance of the English Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne. He started building his own reflecting telescopes and would spend up to 16 hours a day grinding and polishing the speculum metal primary mirrors.  He "began to look at the planets and the stars" in May, 1773 and on 1 March 1774 began an astronomical journal by noting his observations
of Saturn's rings and the Great Orion Nebula (M 42).

Double Stars

Herschel's early observational work soon focused on the search for pairs of stars that were very close together visually. Astronomers of the era expected that changes over time in the apparent separation and relative location of these stars would provide evidence for both the proper motion of stars and, by means of parallax shifts in their separation, for the distance of stars from the Earth (a method first suggested by Galileo Galilei). From the back garden of his house in New King Street, Bath,
and using a 6.2-inch aperture (160 mm), 7-foot focal length (2.1 m) (f/13) Newtonian telescope "with a most capital speculum" of his own manufacture, in October 1779, Herschel began a systematic search for such stars among "every star in the Heavens", with new discoveries listed through 1792. He soon discovered many more binary and multiple stars than expected, and compiled them with careful measurements of their relative positions in two catalogues presented to the Royal Society in
London in 1782 (269 double or multiple systems) and 1784 (434 systems). A third catalogue of discoveries made after 1783 was published in 1821 (145 systems).

In 1797 Herschel measured many of the systems again, and discovered changes in their relative positions that could not be attributed to the parallax caused by the Earth's orbit. He waited until 1802 (in Catalogue of 500 new Nebulae, nebulous Stars, planetary Nebulae, and Clusters of Stars; with Remarks on the Construction of the Heavens) to announce the hypothesis that the two stars might be "binary sidereal systems" orbiting under mutual gravitational attraction, a hypothesis he confirmed in
1803 in his Account of the Changes that have happened, during the last Twenty-five Years, in the relative Situation of Double-stars; with an Investigation of the Cause to which they are owing. In all, Herschel discovered over 800 confirmed double or multiple star systems, almost all of them physical rather than virtual pairs. His theoretical and observational work provided the foundation for modern binary star astronomy; new catalogues adding to his work were not published until after 1820 by Friedrich Wilhelm Struve, James South and John Herschel.

Telescope used to discover the Planet Uranus


In March, 1781, during his search for double stars, Herschel noticed an object appearing as a nonstellar disk. Herschel originally thought it was a comet or a star. He made many more observations of it, and afterwards Russian Academician Anders
Lexell computed the orbit and found it to be probably planetary. Herschel determined in agreement that it must be a planet beyond the orbit of Saturn. He called the new planet the 'Georgian star' (Georgium sidus) after King George III, which also brought him favour; the name didn't stick. However, In France, where reference to the British king was to be avoided if possible, the planet was known as 'Herschel' until the name 'Uranus' was universally adopted. The same year, Herschel was
awarded the Copley Medal and elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1782, he was appointed "The King’s Astronomer" (not to be confused with the Astronomer Royal). He and his sister subsequently moved to Datchet (then in Buckinghamshire but now in Berkshire) on 1 August 1782. He continued his work as a telescope maker and achieved an international reputation for
their manufacture, profitably selling over 60 completed reflectors to British and Continental astronomers.

Deep Sky Surveys

From 1782 to 1802, and most intensively from 1783 to 1790, Herschel conducted systematic surveys in search of "deep sky" or nonstellar objects with two 20-foot focal length (610 cm), 12-inch aperture (30 cm) and 18.7-inch aperture (47 cm) telescopes (in combination with his favoured 6-inch aperture instrument). Excluding duplicated and "lost" entries, Herschel ultimately discovered over 2400 objects defined by him as nebulae. (At that time, nebula was the generic term for any visually extended or diffuse astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way, until galaxies were confirmed as extragalactic systems by Edwin Hubble in 1924.)

Herschel published his discoveries as three catalogues: Catalogue of One Thousand New Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (1786),
Catalogue of a Second Thousand New Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (1789) and the previously cited Catalogue of 500 New
Nebulae ... (1802). He arranged his discoveries under eight "classes": (I) bright nebulae, (II) faint nebulae, (III) very faint
nebulae, (IV) planetary nebulae, (V) very large nebulae, (VI) very compressed and rich clusters of stars, (VII) compressed
clusters of small and large [faint and bright] stars, and (VIII) coarsely scattered clusters of stars. Herschel's discoveries were
supplemented by those of Caroline Herschel (11 objects) and his son John Herschel (1754 objects) and published by him as
General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters in 1864. This catalogue was later edited by John Dreyer, supplemented with
discoveries by many other 19th century astronomers, and published in 1888 as the New General Catalogue (abbreviated NGC)
of 7840 deep sky objects. The NGC numbering is still the most commonly used identifying label for these celestial landmarks.

Work with his sister Caroline

In 1783 he gave Caroline a telescope, and she began to make astronomical discoveries in her own right, particularly comets. She discovered eight comets, eleven nebulae and, at her brother's suggestion, updated and corrected Flamsteed's work detailing the position of stars. This was published as the British Catalogue of Stars. She was honoured by the Royal Astronomical Society for this work. Caroline also continued to serve as his assistant, often taking notes while he observed at the telescope.

In June 1785, owing to damp conditions, he and Caroline moved to Clay Hall in Old Windsor. In 1786, the Herschels moved to a new residence on Windsor Road in Slough. He lived the rest of his life in this residence, which came to be known as Observatory House. It is no longer standing.

On 7 May 1788, he married the widow Mary Pitt (née Baldwin) at St Laurence's Church, Upton in Slough. His sister Caroline then moved to separate lodgings, but continued to work as his assistant.

click on photo for larger image
Herschel's telescopes

During the course of his career, he constructed more than four hundred telescopes. The largest and most famous of these was a reflecting telescope with a 491⁄2-inch-diameter (1.26 m) primary mirror and a 40-foot (12 m) focal length. Because of the poor reflectivity of the speculum mirrors of that day, Herschel eliminated the small diagonal mirror of a standard newtonian reflector from his design and tilted his primary mirror so he could view the formed image directly. This design has come to be called the Herschelian telescope. On 28 August 1789, his first night of observation using this instrument, he discovered a new moon of Saturn. A second moon followed within the first month of observation. The "40-foot telescope" proved very cumbersome, however, and most of his observations were done with a smaller 18.5-inch (47 cm) 20-foot-focal-length (6.1 m) reflector.
Herschel discovered that unfilled telescope apertures can be used to obtain high angular resolution, something which became the essential basis for interferometric imaging in astronomy (in particular Aperture Masking Interferometry and hypertelescopes).

In his later career, Herschel discovered two moons of Saturn, Mimas and Enceladus; as well as two moons of Uranus, Titania and Oberon. He did not give these moons their names; they were named by his son John in 1847 and 1852, respectively, well after his death.

Recently, some evidence has been cited by Dr. Stuart Eves that Herschel might have discovered rings around Uranus.

Herschel measured the axial tilt of the planet Mars and discovered that the martian ice caps, first observed by Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1666) and Christiaan Huygens (1672), changed size with the planet's seasons.

From studying the proper motion of stars, he was the first to realise that the solar system is moving through space, and he determined the approximate direction of that movement. He also studied the structure of the Milky Way and concluded that it was in the shape of a disk.

He also coined the word "asteroid", meaning star-like (from the Greek asteroeides, aster "star" + -eidos "form, shape"), in 1802 (shortly after Olbers discovered the second minor planet, 2 Pallas, in late March of the same year), to describe the star-like appearance of the small moons of the giant planets and of the minor planets; the planets all show discs, by comparison. However, it was not until the 1850s that 'asteroid' became a standard term for describing certain minor planets.

As part of his attempts to determine if there was a link between solar activity and the terrestrial climate, Herschel also collected records of the price of wheat, as direct meteorological measurements were not available for a sufficient period. He theorised that the price of wheat would be linked to the harvest and hence to the weather over the year. This attempt was unsuccessful due to the lack of previous solar observations against which to compare the wheat prices, but similar techniques were used later with success.

Despite his numerous important scientific discoveries, Herschel was not averse to wild speculation. In particular, he believed every planet was inhabited, even the Sun: he believed that the Sun had a cool, solid surface protected from its hot atmosphere by an opaque layer of cloud, and that a race of beings adapted to their strange environment lived there and had enormous heads. He believed the creatures' heads must be exceptionally large because his calculations showed that under those conditions a normal sized head would effectively explode. The original belief of life-forms inhabiting the Sun came from the sight and movement of sunspots on the surface of the Sun.Discovery of infrared radiation in sunlight

On 11 February 1800, Herschel was testing filters for the sun so he could observe sun spots. When using a red filter he found there was a lot of heat produced. Herschel discovered infrared radiation in sunlight by passing it through a prism and holding a thermometer just beyond the red end of the visible spectrum. This thermometer was meant to be a control to measure the ambient air temperature in the room. He was shocked when it showed a higher temperature than the visible spectrum. Further
experimentation led to Herschel's conclusion that there must be an invisible form of light beyond the visible spectrum.


Herschel used a microscope to establish that coral had the characteristic thin cell walls of an animal, instead of it being a plant, as many believed.

Family and death

William Herschel and Mary had one child, John, born at Observatory House on 7 March 1792. In 1816, William was made a Knight of the Royal Guelphic Order by the Prince Regent entitling him to the prefix 'Sir'. He helped to found the Astronomical Society of London in 1820, which in 1831 received a royal charter and became the Royal Astronomical Society. In 1813, he was
elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

On 25 August 1822, Herschel died at Observatory House, Windsor Road, Slough, and is buried at nearby St Laurence's Church, Upton. His son John Herschel also became a famous astronomer. One of William's brothers, Alexander Herschel, moved permanently to England, near his sister Caroline and nephew John. Caroline returned to Hanover, Germany after the death of her brother. She died on 9 January 1848.

His house at 19 New King Street in Bath, Somerset where he made many telescopes and first observed Uranus, is now home to
the Herschel Museum of Astronomy


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Wednesday, 11 July 2012

The First Canadian In Space . . . Marc Garneau
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau, C.C., CD, Ph.D., F.C.A.S.I., MP (born February 23, 1949) is a Canadian politician, retired military officer, former astronaut, and engineer. He is currently the Member of Parliament for the riding of Westmount—Ville-Marie and the Liberal Party House Leader.

Garneau was the first Canadian in outer space taking part in three flights aboard NASA Space shuttles. He was the president of the Canadian Space Agency from 2001 to 2006, and in 2003 was installed as the ninth Chancellor of Carleton University in Ottawa.

In the 2006 federal election, he unsuccessfully sought a seat in the Canadian House of Commons in the riding of Vaudreuil-Soulanges. Two years later he was elected in the riding of Westmount—Ville-Marie in downtown Montreal, winning by over 9000 votes. He was re-elected to House of Commons in the 2011 federal election by 642 votes.

Early life and career

Joseph Jean-Pierre Marc Garneau was born on February 23, 1949, in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.He attended primary and secondary schools in Quebec City and Saint-Jean. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering physics from the Royal Military College of Canada in 1970, and in 1973 received a Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, England. From 1982 to 1983, he attended the Canadian Forces Command and Staff College of Toronto.

In 1974, Garneau began his career in the Royal Canadian Navy as a Navy combat systems engineer on HMCS Algonquin. He was promoted to Commander in 1982 while at Staff College and was transferred to Ottawa in 1983. In January 1986, he was promoted to Naval Captain and retired from the Navy in 1989.

Career with the Canadian Space Agency

Garneau was one of the first Canadian Astronauts and he became the first Canadian in outer space in October 1984. In 1984, he was seconded to the new Canadian Astronaut Program, one of six chosen from over 4,000 applicants. He flew on the shuttle Challenger, STS-41-G from October 5 to 13, 1984, as payload specialist. He was promoted to Captain in 1986, and left the Navy in 1989, to become deputy director of the CAP. In 1992-93, he underwent further training to become a mission specialist. He worked as CAPCOM for a number of shuttle flights and was on two further flights himself - STS-77 (May 19 to 29, 1996) and STS-97 (to the ISS, November 30 to December 11, 2000). He has logged almost 678 hours in space and is now retired as an astronaut.

In February 2001, he was appointed executive vice-president of the Canadian Space Agency, and became its president on November 22, 2001.

Political life

Garneau resigned from his employment with the Canadian Space Agency to run for the Liberal Party of Canada in the 2006 federal election. He ran in the riding of Vaudreuil-Soulanges which was represented by Meili Faille of the Bloc Québécois. Garneau was dogged by the sponsorship scandal, which dragged down most Liberal candidates in marginal Quebec ridings. He also made some controversial comments, arguing that Quebec separation should not be envisaged with the same haste as Iraq's invasion by the United States. In addition, he suggested that he would like to return to space along with sovereigntist leaders Gilles Duceppe and André Boisclair, arguing that they would probably become federalists, seeing the Earth without its artificial borders. This remark was ridiculed as political naivete by his Bloc opponents. In the end, a stronger-than-expected Conservative candidate siphoned away many federalist votes and Garneau lost to Faille by 9,200 votes.

He remained active in politics, supporting Michael Ignatieff's bid to lead the Liberal Party in the 2006 Liberal Party leadership election. He hoped to be considered for the Liberal candidacy for the Outremont by-election in September 2007, but was obliged to withdraw after being told by Stéphane Dion that the riding was reserved for another candidate. Soon afterwards, he announced he would depart from political life, citing Stéphane Dion's ambivalence as a main factor in his decision.

However, following the resignation of former Liberal deputy leader Lucienne Robillard, Garneau was nominated as the candidate for the safe Liberal riding of Westmount—Ville-Marie. Garneau was campaigning to contest in a by-election set for September 8, 2008. However, the by-election was cancelled when a general election was called. Garneau went on to win the riding by over 9,000 votes in the 2008 federal election.

Garneau was narrowly reelected in the 2011 election where he beat New Democratic Party candidate Joanne Corbeil. He now serves as Liberal Party House Leader. He was a candidate for interim leadership of the Liberal Party, but was ultimately defeated by Bob Rae.

Awards and honours

Garneau was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1984 in recognition of his role as the first Canadian astronaut. He was promoted the rank of Companion within the order in 2003 for his extensive work with Canada's space program.

He was awarded the Canadian Forces Decoration for 12 years of honourable service with the Canadian Forces.

He is honoured with a high school named after him, Marc Garneau Collegiate Institute in Toronto and É.S.P. Marc-Garneau in Trenton, Ontario.

Garneau is the Honorary Captain of the Royal Canadian Sea Cadets. In addition, no 599 Royal Canadian Air Cadets squadron is named in his honour.


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Tuesday, 10 July 2012

My New Fractal Art . . .

Click on images for larger size

" Float "
by dh

" Beyond Zero "
by dh

Fron an old pen and ink drawing 1980"s

" in 2 "
by dh

Old pen and ink drawing
early 80"s

" The Artifacts of Black & White "
by dh

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Sunday, 1 July 2012